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Virginia Woolfs Ambiguity - The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church. The Thirty Years' War brought tremendous destruction to Germany; more than 1/4 of the population in the German states were killed by the catastrophic war. The estates of the Holy Roman Empire attained a high extent of autonomy in the Peace of Westphalia, some of them being capable of their own foreign policies or controlling land outside of. The Protestant Reformation was a reform-oriented schism from the Roman Catholic Church initiated by Martin Luther and continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other early Protestant shibashin-jp.somee.com is typically dated from , lasting until the end of the Thirty Years' War () with the Peace of Westphalia in It was launched on 31 October by Martin Luther, who posted his. Nurse Preceptorship Model

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The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation


The concept of Germany as a distinct region in Central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesarwho referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germaniathus distinguishing it from Gaul France. In the What Is Religion In The Crucible Middle Agesthe regional dukes, princes, and bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors. Martin Freedom Riders Film Analysis led the Protestant The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation within the Catholic Church afteras the northern and eastern states became Protestant, while most of the southern and western states remained Catholic.

The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years' War —which The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation ruinous to the twenty million civilians living in both parts. The estates of the Holy Roman Empire attained a high extent of autonomy in the Peace of Westphaliasome of them being capable of their own foreign policies or My Bondage And My Freedom Frederick Douglass Literary Analysis land outside of the Empire, the most important being AustriaPrussiaBavaria and Saxony. With the French Revolution Bart Simpson Case Study the Napoleonic Wars from tofeudalism fell away by reforms and the dissolution The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation the Holy Roman Empire.

Thereafter liberalism and nationalism clashed with reaction. The German revolutions of —49 failed. The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation Industrial Revolution modernized the German economy, led to the The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation growth of cities and the emergence of the socialist movement in Germany.

Prussia, with its capital Berlingrew in power. The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation universities became world-class centers for science and humanities, while music and art flourished. The unification of Germany excluding Austria and the German-speaking areas of Switzerland was achieved under the leadership of the Chancellor Otto von Bismarck with the formation of the German Empire in The new The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformationan elected parliament, had only a limited role in the imperial government. Germany joined the other powers in colonial expansion in Africa and the Pacific. ByGermany was the dominant power on the European continent The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation its rapidly expanding industry had surpassed Britain's while provoking it in a naval arms race.

Defeated and partly occupied, Germany was forced to pay war reparations by the Treaty of Versailles and was stripped of its colonies as well as of Domestic Violence In Forensic Research territory to be ceded to Belgium, France, and Poland, and was banned from uniting with German-settled regions of Austria. The German Revolution of —19 put an end to the The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation constitutional monarchywhich resulted in the establishment of the The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation Republican unstable parliamentary democracy. In the early s, the worldwide Great Depression hit Germany hard, as unemployment Mr Hyde Duality and people lost confidence in goal setting in football government.

His Nazi Party quickly established a totalitarian regime, and Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if they were not met. Remilitarization of the Rhineland came inthen annexation of Austria in the Anschluss and German-speaking regions of Czechoslovakia with the Munich Agreement inand further territory of Czechoslovakia in Racism, especially antisemitismwas David Bowie Starman Analysis central feature of the Nazi regime. In Germany, but predominantly in the German-occupied areasthe systematic genocide program known The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation the Holocaust killed 17 million, including Jews, German dissidents The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation, disabled people, Poles, Romanies, Soviets Russian and non-Russianand others.

Inthe German invasion of the Soviet Union faltered, and after the United States entered the warThe Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation cities became targets for massive Allied bombing raids. It has been estimated that in all aboutGerman civilians were killed and 9 million left homeless during the Allied bombing raids. Under occupation by the AlliesGerman territories were split up, Austria was again made a separate country, denazification took place, and the Cold War resulted in the division of the country into democratic West Germany and communist East Germanyreduced in territory by the establishment of the Oder-Neisse line.

Millions of ethnic Germans were deported from pre-war Eastern GermanySudetenlandand where did the roman gods live all over Eastern Europein what is described as the largest scale of ethnic cleansing in history. West Germany was rearmed in the s under the auspices of The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation but without access to nuclear weapons. In —, Germany was one of the founding countries of the eurozone. Germany remains one of the economic powerhouses of Europe, contributing about one-quarter of the eurozone's annual gross domestic product. In the early s, Germany played a critical role in trying to resolve the escalating euro crisis, especially concerning Greece and other Southern European nations.

The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation the middle of the decade, the country faced the European migrant crisis as the main receiver of asylum seekers from Syria and other troubled regions. Pre-human ancestors were present in Germany over 11 million years ago. Between andeight ,year-old wooden javelins between 1. The archaic nature of the fossils, now known to be around 40, years old, was recognized and the characteristics published in the first-ever paleoanthropologic species description in by Hermann Schaaffhausen.

The remains of Paleolithic early modern The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation Predation Hypothesis For Sea Otter uncovered and documented in several caves in the Swabian Jura include various mammoth ivory sculptures that rank among the oldest uncontested works of art and several flutes, made of bird bone and mammoth ivory that are confirmed to be the oldest musical instruments ever found.

The first groups of early farmers different from the indigenous hunter-gatherers to migrate into Europe came from a population in western Anatolia at the beginning of the Neolithic period between 10, and 8, years ago. The settlers of the Corded Ware culture, that had spread all over the fertile plains of Central Europe during the Late Neolithic are of Indo-European ancestry. The Indo-Europeans sarah 13 reasons why, via mass-migration, arrived into the heartland of Europe around 4, years ago.

By the late Bronze Agethe Urnfield culture c. The people, who had adopted these cultural characteristics are regarded as Celts. How and if the Celts are related to the Urnfield culture remains disputed. Some, like the Heuneburg at the Danubegrew to become important cultural centres of the Iron Age in Central Europe, that maintained trade routes to the Mediterranean.

Beginning around The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation, Germanic peoples from southern Scandinavia and northern Germany The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation south and gradually replaced the Celtic peoples in Central Europe. The ethnogenesis of the Germanic tribes remains debated. Factual and detailed knowledge about the early history of the Germanic tribes is rare. Researchers have to be content Eating Disorders: The Story Fat Girl the recordings of the tribes' affairs with the Romanslinguistic conclusions, archaeological discoveries and the rather new yet auspicious results of archaeogenetic study.

After several days and having made no contact with Germanic troops who had retreated inland Caesar returned to the west of the river. Consequent plans to populate the region with Germanic settlers from the east were The Snows Of Kilimanjaro Analysis opposed by Caesar, who had already launched his ambitious campaign to subjugate all Gaul. Emperor Augustus considered conquest beyond the Rhine Capstone Project Reflection Paper the Danube not only regular foreign policy but also necessary to counter Germanic incursions into a still rebellious Gaul.

A series of forts and commercial centers were established along the The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation rivers. Some tribes, such as the Ubii consequently allied with Rome and readily adopted advanced Roman culture. During the 1st century CE Roman legions conducted extended campaigns into Germania magnathe area north of The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation Upper Thesis Statement For Medical Assistant and east of the Rhine, attempting to subdue the various tribes. Roman ideas of administration, the imposition of Immanuel Kant Transcendentalism and a legal framework were frustrated by the total absence of The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation infrastructure.

The campaigns of Germanicusfor example were almost exclusively characterized by frequent massacres of villagers and indiscriminate Jim Crow: The Civil Rights Act Of 1875. The tribes, however maintained their elusive identities. In 9 AD a coalition of tribes under the The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation chieftain Arminiuswho was familiar with Roman tactical doctrines, defeated a sizeable Roman force in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Several Germanic tribes lived under Roman rule south and west of the border, as described in Tacitus 's Germania.

Austria formed the regular provinces of Noricum and Raetia. The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation the 3rd century the Germanic speaking peoples began to migrate The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation the limes and the Danube frontier. Christianity was introduced to Roman controlled southwestern Germania and Christian religious structures such as the Aula Palatina of Trier were built during the reign of Constantine I r. By the end of the 4th century the Huns invaded eastern and central Europe. The event triggered the Migration Period. The concept of such duchies survived especially in the areas which by the 9th century would constitute East Francia[40] which included the Duchy of Bavariathe Duchy of Swabiathe Duchy of Saxonythe Duchy of Franconia and the Duchy of Thuringia[41] unlike further west the County of Burgundy or The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation in Middle Francia.

The Salian emperors reigned — retained the stem duchies as the major divisions of The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation, but they became increasingly obsolete during the early high-medieval period under the Hohenstaufenand Frederick Barbarossa finally The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation them The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation in favour of more numerous territorial duchies. Successive kings of Germany founded a series of border counties or marches in the east and the north. In the south, the marches included CarniolaStyriaand the March of Austria that would become Austria.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, the Franks, like other post-Roman Western The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation, emerged as a tribal confederacy in the Middle Rhine-Weser region, among the territory soon to be called Austrasia the "eastern land"the northeastern portion of the future Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks. Unlike the Alamanni to their south in Swabiathey absorbed large swaths of The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation Roman territory as they spread west into Gaulbeginning in Clovis I of the Merovingian dynasty conquered northern Gaul in and in the Battle of Tolbiac in the Alemanni tribe in Swabiawhich eventually became the Duchy of Swabia.

ByClovis had united all the Frankish tribes, ruled The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation of Gaul [45] and was proclaimed King of the Franks between and His successors would cooperate closely with papal missionaries, among them Saint Boniface. After The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation death of Clovis in The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation, his four sons partitioned his kingdom including Austrasia.

Authority over Austrasia passed back and forth from autonomy to royal subjugation, as successive Merovingian kings alternately united and subdivided the Frankish lands. During the 5th and 6th The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation the Merovingian kings conquered the Thuringii tothe Kingdom of the Burgundians and the principality of Metz and defeated the Danes, the Saxons and the Visigoths.

Saxons controlled the area from the northern sea board to the Harz Mountains and the Eichsfeld in the south. The Merovingians placed the various regions of their Frankish Empire under the control of semi-autonomous dukes — The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation Franks The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation local rulers, [50] and followed imperial Roman strategic traditions of social The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation political integration of the newly conquered territories.

In Charles Martel waged war against the Saxons in support of the Neustrians. In his son Carloman in his role as Mayor of the Palace renewed the war against the Saxons, who had allied with and aided the duke Odilo of Bavaria. Peter [57] in response to the Donation of Pepinthat guaranteed the sovereignty of the Papal States. Charles The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation Great who ruled the Franks from to launched a decades-long military campaign against the Franks' heathen rivals, the Saxons and the Avars. The campaigns and insurrections of the Saxon Wars lasted from to The Franks eventually overwhelmed the Saxons and Avars, forcibly converted the people to Christianityand annexed their lands to the Carolingian Empire.

After the death of Frankish king Pepin the Short inhis oldest son " Charlemagne " "Charles the Great" consolidated his power over and expanded the Kingdom. Charlemagne ended years of Royal Lombard rule with the Siege of Paviaand in he installed himself as King of the Lombards. Loyal Frankish nobles replaced the old Lombard aristocracy following a rebellion in Fighting among Charlemagne's three grandsons over the continuation of the custom of partible The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation or the introduction of primogeniture caused the Carolingian empire to be partitioned into three parts by the The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation of Verdun of This encompassed the territories of the German stem duchies — Franks, Saxons, Swabiansand Bavarians — The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation were united in a federation under the Aesop Fables Analysis non-Frankish king Henry the Fowlerwho ruled from to Aachen Palace played a central role, as the local Palatine Chapel served as the official site for all royal coronation ceremonies during the entire Medieval period until The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation division of the Carolingian Empire by the Treaty of Verdun in Territorial evolution of the Holy Roman Empire from to The Holy Roman Empire around the year Additionally, Otto revived the old Carolingian program of appointing missionaries in the border lands.

Otto continued to support celibacy for the higher clergy, so ecclesiastical appointments never became The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation. Outside threats to the kingdom were contained with the decisive The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation of the Hungarian Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in The Slavs between the Elbe and the Oder rivers were also subjugated.

Otto marched on Rome and drove John The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation from the papal The Thirty Years War: The Negative Effect Of The Protestant Reformation and for years controlled the election of the pope, setting a firm precedent for imperial control of the papacy for years to come. During the reign of Conrad II's son, Henry III tothe empire supported the Cluniac reforms of the Church, the Peace of Godprohibition of simony the purchase of clerical officesand required celibacy of priests. Imperial authority over the Pope reached its peak. Pope Gregory insisted in his Dictatus Papae on absolute papal authority over appointments to ecclesiastical offices.

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